Joan of Arc

(1412-1431)
   national heroine, saint
   Called the Maid of orleans, who united the nation at the most crucial hour and turned the hundred years' war in France's favor, Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) was born to a peasant family in Domrémy, Lorraine. According to her testimony, when she was 13 she heard celestial voices (st. Michael, st. Catherine, st. Margaret), sometimes also accompanied by visions, which exhorted her to help the dauphin, later charles vii, king of France. In 1428, when the English were about to capture orléans (see hundred years' war), Joan convinced the dauphin (who had not yet been crowned king because of internal strife and the English claim to the throne) that she had a divine mission to save France. A commission of theologians approved her claims, and she was given troops to command. Dressed in armor and carrying the white fleur-de-lys banner, she led the French to a decisive victory over the English at Patay and then took Auxerre, Troyes, and Châlons, thus opening the way to Reims. At the subsequent coronation of the dauphin (1429) at Reims, she was given the place of honor beside the king. Although Joan had unified the French behind Charles, and had put an end to English dreams of hegemony over France, Charles opposed any further campaigns against the English. Thus, it was without royal support that Joan, in 1430, led a military operation against the English at Compiègne, near Paris and was wounded. she was captured by Burgundian soldiers, who sold her to their English allies. she then was turned over to an ecclesiastical court at Rouen to be tried for sorcery and heresy. she defended herself with courage and simplicity as the court, during 14 months of interrogation, accused her of wrongdoing in wearing masculine dress and of heresy. Condemned to death, she confessed, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. shortly after, she abjured her confession and also resumed masculine dress. she was condemned again and, on May 30, 1431, was burned at the stake. In 1456 however, her case was reinvestigated by the church and she was pronounced innocent. in 1909, she was beatified and, in 1920, canonized. A symbol of French nationalism, especially in modern times and during the 20th-century world wars, Joan of Arc has also been widely depicted in literature, art, music, and film (voltaire, Schiller, rude, Twain, Audiberti, péguy, Dreyer, DeMille, Preminger, Rossellini, Bresson, Rivette, Shaw, Verdi, claudel, and honegger).
   See also xaintrailles, jean poton.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Joan of Arc — [ärk] (Fr. name Jeanne d Arc) 1412 31; Fr. heroine: defeated the English at Orléans (1429): burned at the stake for witchcraft: called the Maid of Orléans: also Saint Joan of Arc …   English World dictionary

  • Joan of Arc — also St Joan (1412 31) the ↑patron saint of France. As a young girl, she believed that she heard holy voices telling her to fight the English and force their army to leave France. Dressed as a man, she led a French army which defeated the English …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Joan of Arc — Allgemeine …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joan of Arc — For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). Jeanne d Arc redirects here. For other uses, see Jeanne d Arc (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia

  • Joan of Arc — (Jehanne d’Arc) (ca. 1412–1431)    Joan of Arc, also called the Maid of Orléans, was a peasant girl who became a national heroine and the patron saint of France. At a crucial period of the Hundred Years’War, she led the French resistance to… …   Encyclopedia of medieval literature

  • Joan of Arc — (1412 1431)    Joan of Arc, whose real name was Jehanne, is also known as Jehanne d Arc, Jeanne d Arc, Jeanne la Pucelle (i.e. the virgin ), and the Maid ofOrleans. She is revered as a Catholic Saint and the heroine of France, who led the French… …   Dictionary of Hallucinations

  • Joan of Arc — (1412–31)    Rebel and Saint.    Joan was born in humble circumstances in Domrémy, France. From an early age she heard the voices of Saints michael, catherine and margaret, urging her to go to the rescue of France. At that stage, much of the… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Joan of Arc — noun French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake (1412 1431) • Syn: ↑Jeanne d Arc,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Joan of Arc — (d. 1431)    Peasant girl who, in 1429, arrived at the court of the French king Charles VII (1422 1461), claiming to have been divinely commissioned by the voices of saints to maintain the king s cause against his rival, King Henry V of England.… …   Historical Dictionary of Renaissance

  • Joan of Arc — French Jeanne d Arc biographical name Saint circa 1412 1431 the Maid of Orleans French national heroine …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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